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Friday, April 12, 2013

April 2013 Review


The History of Education   by Levi Seeley, 1899, 1904, 1914. Download the book in various formats for free:  Click Here

1. Opening Thoughts
2.  Table of Contents
3.   Further Reviews and Summaries
4. Quotes from the Book

Opening Thoughts

Sometimes old is new.  In this case it is at least refreshing.  Levi Seeley wrote at the turn of the 20th century when life was simpler and certainly clearer.  He begins an introduction of the importance of studying the history of education and then proceeds to give us a view of education through the ages.  He does this by examining countries and eras when education was advanced.  I enjoyed his remarks about the contribution to the educational process through the different ages.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I PAGE

INTRODUCTION 15

1. Purpose of the history of education. 2. Plan of study. 3. The study of great educators. 4. Modern systems of education. 5. General outline.

CHAPTER II

CHINA 20

1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The elementary school. 4. Higher education. 5. Degrees. 6. Examinations. 7. Criticism of Chinese education. 8. Confucius.

CHAPTER III

INDIA 29

1. Geography and history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home. 4. The elementary school. 5. Higher education. 6. Criticism of Hindu education. 7. Buddha.

CHAPTER IV

PERSIA 36

1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The State education. 4. Criticism of Persian education. 5. Zoroaster.

CHAPTER V

THE JEWS 40

1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The Jewish school. 4. Esteem for the teachers. 5. The Schools of the Rabbis. 6. Criticism of Jewish education. 7. The Talmud.

CHAPTER VI

EGYPT 46

1. Geography and history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home. 4. Education. 5. Criticism of Egyptian education. 6. General summary of oriental education.

CHAPTER VII

GREECE 53

1. Geography and history. 2. Manners and customs. 3. The Olympian games.

CHAPTER VIII

ATHENS 56

1. Historical. 2. The difference in spirit between Athens and Sparta. 3. The home. 4. Education. 5. The Sophists. 6. Criticism of Athenian education.

CHAPTER IX

ATHENIAN EDUCATORS 61

1. Socrates,—life, method, death. 2. Plato,—life, his "Republic," scheme and aim of education. 3. Aristotle,—life, pedagogy, estimate of him.

CHAPTER X

SPARTA 68

1. Historical. 2. The home. 3. Education. 4. Criticism of Spartan education. 5. Lycurgus. 6. Pythagoras.

CHAPTER XI

ROME 74

1. The Age of Augustus. 2. Geography and history. 3. The home. 4. Education,—elementary, secondary, higher. 5. Criticism of Roman education.

CHAPTER XII

ROMAN EDUCATORS 81

1. Cicero,—life, philosophy, pedagogy. 2. Seneca,—the teacher of Nero, great orator, writer, etc., pedagogical writings. 3. Quintilian,—his school, his "Institutes of Oratory," pedagogical principles. 4. Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius.

CHAPTER XIII

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION—INTRODUCTION 89

1. General view. 2. New principles introduced by Christianity. 3. Importance of the individual. 4. Obstacles which the early Christians had to meet. 5. Slow growth of Christian education.

CHAPTER XIV

THE GREAT TEACHER 96

1. Life and character. 2. Impression which Christ made. 3. His work as a teacher. 4. An example of pedagogical practice.

CHAPTER XV

GENERAL VIEW OF THE FIRST PERIOD OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 101

1. The period covered. 2. The connection of the Church with education. 3. The monasteries. 4. Influence of the crusades. 5. Of the Teutonic peoples.

CHAPTER XVI

THE FIRST CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 104

1. The catechumen schools. 2. Chrysostom. 3. Basil the Great. 4. The catechetical schools. 5. Clement of Alexandria. 6. Origen.

CHAPTER XVII

CONFLICT BETWEEN PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 111

1. General discussion. 2. Tertullian. 3. Saint Augustine. 4. Augustine's pedagogy.

CHAPTER XVIII

MONASTIC EDUCATION 116

1. Monasteries. 2. The Benedictines. 3. The seven liberal arts. 4. Summary of benefits conferred by the monasteries.

CHAPTER XIX

SCHOLASTICISM 121

1. Its character. 2. Its influence. 3. Summary of its benefits.

CHAPTER XX

CHARLEMAGNE 125

1. History, character, and purpose. 2. Personal education. 3. General educational plans. 4. Summary of Charlemagne's work.

CHAPTER XXI

ALFRED THE GREAT 130

1. History and character. 2. Educational work.

CHAPTER XXII

FEUDAL EDUCATION 132

1. Character of the knights. 2. Three periods into which their education was divided. 3. Education of women. 4. Criticism of feudal education.

CHAPTER XXIII

THE CRUSADES AS AN EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT 136

1. Causes of the crusades. 2. The most important crusades. 3. Summary of their educational value.

CHAPTER XXIV

THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 139

1. What led to their establishment. 2. The most important early universities. 3. Their privileges. 4. Their influence.

CHAPTER XXV

MOHAMMEDAN EDUCATION 143

1. History of Mohammedanism. 2. The five Moslem precepts. 3. Education. 4. What the Mohammedans accomplished for science. 5. General summary of education during the Middle Ages.

CHAPTER XXVI

THE RENAISSANCE 148

1. The great revival. 2. Principles proclaimed. 3. The movement in Italy. 4. In Germany. 5. Summary of the benefits of the Renaissance to education.

CHAPTER XXVII

HUMANISTIC EDUCATORS 155

1. Revival of the classics their purpose. 2. Dante. 3. Petrarch. 4. Boccaccio. 5. Agricola. 6. Reuchlin. 7. Erasmus. 8. Pedagogy of Erasmus.

CHAPTER XXVIII

THE REFORMATION AS AN EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCE 164

1. Conditions at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 2. The invention of printing. 3. The rulers of the leading countries. 4. Intellectual conditions. 5. Luther. 6. Luther's pedagogy. 7. Melanchthon.

CHAPTER XXIX

OTHER PROTESTANT EDUCATORS 174

1. Sturm. 2. The Gymnasium at Strasburg. 3. The celebrated course of study. 4. Trotzendorf. 5. Neander.

CHAPTER XXX

THE JESUITS AND THEIR EDUCATION 182

1. The order. 2. Loyola. 3. Growth of the society. 4. Jesuit education. 5. Use of emulation. 6. Estimate of their educational work. 7. Summary. 8. The Port Royalists.

CHAPTER XXXI

OTHER EDUCATORS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 190

1. Roger Ascham. 2. Double translating. 3. Rabelais. 4. First appearance of realism in instruction. 5. Montaigne. 6. Summary of progress during the sixteenth century.

CHAPTER XXXII

EDUCATION DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 200

1. Political and historical conditions. 2. The educational situation. 3. Compulsory education. 4. The Innovators.

CHAPTER XXXIII

EDUCATORS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 205

1. Bacon. 2. The inductive method. 3. Ratke. 4. His pedagogy. 5. Comenius. 6. The "Orbis Pictus." 7. Summary of his work. 8. Milton. 9. Locke. 10. Fenelon. 11. His pedagogy. 12. La Salle and the brothers of the Christian schools. 13. Rollin. 14. Summary of the educational progress of the seventeenth century.

CHAPTER XXXIV

FRANCKE AND THE PIETISTS 231

1. Pietism. 2. Francke. 3. The Institutions at Halle. 4. The training of teachers. 5. The Real-school.

CHAPTER XXXV

GENERAL VIEW OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES 237

1. The abolition of slavery. 2. The extension of political rights. 3. Science as an instrument of civilization. 4. Religious freedom.

CHAPTER XXXVI

MODERN EDUCATORS—ROUSSEAU 241

1. Life. 2. Pedagogy. 3. The "Emile."

CHAPTER XXXVII

MODERN EDUCATORS—BASEDOW 250

1. Life. 2. The Philanthropin. 3. Writings. 4. Jacotot.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

MODERN EDUCATORS—PESTALOZZI 257

1. Childhood. 2. Schooling. 3. Life purpose. 4. The Christian ministry. 5. The law. 6. Farming. 7. Marriage. 8. At Neuhof. 9. Authorship. 10. At Stanz. 11. At Burgdorf. 12. At Yverdon. 13. Summary of Pestalozzi's work.

CHAPTER XXXIX

MODERN EDUCATORS—FROEBEL 272

1. Life. 2. As teacher. 3. His first school. 4. The kindergarten. 5. The "Education of Man."

CHAPTER XL

MODERN EDUCATORS—HERBART 278

1. Life. 2. Experience as a tutor. 3. As a university professor. 4. His practice school in the university. 5. Writings. 6. His pedagogical work. 7. Work of modern Herbartians.

CHAPTER XLI

MODERN EDUCATORS—HORACE MANN 284

1. Life. 2. Work as a statesman. 3. As an educator. 4. His Seventh Annual Report. 5. Love for the common schools.

CHAPTER XLII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GERMANY 289

1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools. 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.

CHAPTER XLIII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF FRANCE 296

1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools. 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.

CHAPTER XLIV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND 304

1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools. 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.

CHAPTER XLV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES 309

1. No national system. 2. State systems—Administration. 3. School attendance. 4. The schools. 5. Support of schools. 6. The teachers.

APPENDIX

RECENT EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS 315

1. The National Educational Association. 2. The National Bureau of Education. 3. The Quincy Movement. 4. The Herbartian Movement. 5. Child Study. 6. Parents' Meetings. 7. Manual and Industrial Training. 8. Material Improvements.

3.   Further Reviews and Summaries

Could not find any other reviews.


4. Quotes from the Book  (highlights done with the Kindle reader, thus the location rather than page)

This law required every child to enter school at the beginning of his sixth year, and to remain in school until he could read his mother tongue, had mastered Luther's catechism, and was well grounded in arithmetic, writing, and church songs.
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We must here mention also the Innovators or Reformers, whose period of educational activity falls chiefly within the seventeenth century. Among these appear the names of Francis Bacon, Ratke, Milton, Comenius, Rollin, Fénelon, and Locke. These men started movements which revolutionized education and laid the foundation of modern methods.
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that a new method of teaching should be adopted, framed 'According to nature.'“[85] In another chapter we shall study the life and work of some of these men.
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 [85] Quick, “Educational Reformers,” p. 50.
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In 1620 his greatest work, the “Novum Organum,” was published. In this appears his Inductive Method, a great educational discovery, which has been of inestimable value to mankind.
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We find in Bacon, then, the beginning of a new era in education. It remained for Comenius, Locke, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and their compeers to apply to specific educational systems the great truth contained in the inductive method; and to scientists and investigators of all kinds has been intrusted the mission of furthering,
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COMENIUS[96] (1592−1670) By far the greatest educator of the seventeenth century, and one of the greatest in educational history, was Johann Amos Comenius. He was born in Moravia, and belonged to the Protestant body known as the Moravian Brethren. His early education was neglected, a fact
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Of this experience he writes, “After many workings and tossings of my thoughts, by reducing everything to the immovable laws of nature, I lighted upon my 'Didactica Magna,' which shows the art of readily and solidly teaching all men all things.”
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 “The infant school should be found in every house, the vernacular school in every village and community, the gymnasium in every province, and the university in every kingdom or large province.” This scheme, with variation of details, forms the basis of present school systems: first, the period in the home with the mother till six; second, the period of general education in the common school, from six to twelve or fourteen; third, the period of preparation for the professional schools, from twelve or fourteen to eighteen; and fourth, the professional or university course, from eighteen to twenty−four. The last is usually divided into a college and a university course. (3) The educational principles of Comenius were revolutionary as to the school practices of the time. They have come to be almost universally accepted at present. We can here state only a few of the most essential.[104] 1. If we would teach and learn surely, we must follow the order of Nature. 2. Let everything be presented through the senses. 3. Proceed from the easy to the difficult, from the near to the remote, from the general to the special, from the known to the unknown. 4. Make learning pleasant by the choice of suitable material, by not attempting too much, by the use of concrete examples, and by the selection of that which is of utility. 5. Fix firmly by frequent repetitions and drills. 6. Let all things advance by indissoluble steps, so that everything taught to−day may give firmness and stability to what was taught yesterday, and point the way to the work of to−morrow.[105] 7. Let everything that is useless be eliminated from teaching. 8. Learn to do by doing. 9. Each language should be learned separately, have a definite time assigned to it, be learned by use rather than precept,—that is, the practice in learning should be with familiar things,—and all tongues should be learned by one and the same method. 10. The example of well−ordered life of parents, nurses, teachers, and schoolfellows is very important for children; but precepts and rules of life must be added to example. 11. As knowledge of God is the highest of all knowledge, the Holy Scriptures must be the alpha and omega of the Christian schools. Comenius gives explicit directions as to methods of instruction, class management, discipline, courses of study, including a discussion of each branch, and moral and religious teaching. He presents these directions in the most remarkable and complete series of precepts and principles to be found in educational literature.[106]
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He anticipated Herbert Spencer's celebrated definition,—“To prepare us for complete living is the function which education has to discharge,”—in the following words: “I call, therefore, a complete and generous education that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war.”
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Locke's great work, on which his fame securely rests, is the “Essay concerning Human Understanding,” which stamps him as the greatest of English philosophers. This appeared in 1690. His most important educational work is entitled “Some Thoughts concerning Education.” Compayré says, “From psychology to pedagogy the transition is easy, and Locke had to make no great effort to become an authority on education after having been an accomplished philosopher.” Further, the same author says concerning the essential principles discussed in “Thoughts concerning Education,” “These are: 1, in physical education, the hardening process; 2, in intellectual education, practical utility; 3, in moral education, the principle of honor, set up as a rule for the free self−government of man.”
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As to moral education, Locke declares, “That which a gentleman ought to desire for his son, besides the fortune which he leaves him, is, 1, virtue; 2, prudence; 3, good manners; 4, instruction.” In his course of study the idea of utility prevails.
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Fénelon's Pedagogy.=—1. There must be systematic care of the body. Therefore regular meals and plain food, plenty of sleep, exercise, etc., are essential. 2. All instruction must be made pleasant and interesting. Play is to be utilized in teaching. In this he anticipated Froebel. 3. Let punishments be as light as possible. Encourage children to be open and truthful, and do not prevent confession by making punishments too frequent or too severe. Punishment should be administered privately, as a rule, and publicly only when all other means have failed. 4. Present the thing before its name,—the idea before the word. Study things, investigate. Employ curiosity. In this he was a disciple of Bacon and Comenius, and a prophet to Pestalozzi. 5. Allow nothing to be committed to memory that is not understood. 6. Girls, also, must share the benefits of education. Especial attention should be given to teaching them modesty, gentleness, piety, household economy, the duties of their station in life, and those of motherhood. 7. Morality should be taught early and by means of fables, stories, and concrete examples. 8. Proceed from the near at hand to the remote, from the known to the unknown. Thus in language, after the mother tongue, teach other living languages, and then the classics. The latter are to be learned by conversation about common objects, and by application of the rules of grammar in connection therewith. In geography and history one's own environment and country should be learned first, then other countries. 9. Example is of great importance to all periods of life, but especially to childhood. This Fénelon practically illustrated by his own life and by the concrete cases which he used. Voltaire says of Fénelon, “His wit was overflowing with beauty, his heart with goodness.”
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LA SALLE AND THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS[113] In 1681, La Salle, a devoted priest of the Catholic Church, organized the Brothers of the Christian Schools. The idea primarily was to awaken interest in elementary education.
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Education, therefore, owes to La Salle three important contributions,—(1) the Simultaneous Method of Instruction, whereby a number of children of the same advancement are taught together; (2) the first Normal School, established at Rheims, France, in 1684; and (3) a dignifying of the teacher's profession by setting apart trained persons who should give all their time to the work of teaching.
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Rollin (1661−1741).=—This great teacher, connected for many years with the University of Paris,
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Rollin anticipated modern practice by seeking to make learning pleasant and discipline humane. He would use the rod only as a last resort—a theory quite contrary to the practice of that time.
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Summary of the Educational Progress of the Seventeenth Century.=—1. School systems were established and compulsory attendance made efficient in Weimar in 1619, in Gotha in 1642, and in many other cities, showing a growing recognition of the principle of universal education and the duty of the State to assume the responsibility for its attainment. 2. A school of educators, known as the “Innovators,” laid emphasis on sense−realism,—the study of things, the contact with nature, the education that is of practical use. 3. Bacon laid the foundation of all future scientific research by his inductive method. This increased the riches of the world beyond calculation, taught how investigation is to be made, laid the foundation of modern science, and gave direction to all later education. 4. Ratke, though erratic and vulgar, instituted wholesome reforms in the teaching of languages, and promulgated theories which, under later reformers, bore rich fruitage. 5. Comenius, one of the greatest educators of all time, produced the first illustrated text−book, planned a general organization for schools in several countries, which is the basis of present systems, and proclaimed theories which are now universally accepted as the guide of modern pedagogical practice. 6. Milton, though primarily a literary man, lent the weight of his genius and his great name to school reform. He marked out a course of study which contemplates a unity of purpose from the elementary school to the university. 7. The great English philosopher, Locke, also found time to devote to education. His principle, “A sound mind in a sound body,” directed attention to physical education. 8. In the noble French priest, Fénelon, we find an example of theory practically applied. He gives, also, for the first time, a place in pedagogy to the education of girls. 9. In general, we find that the seventeenth century laid stress upon the principle of utility, gave great impulse to science, called attention to the care of the body, decreased the influence of classic studies, brushed away the fabric which superstition and conservatism had woven, produced some of the greatest educators that have ever lived, and laid the foundations on which modern education is built.
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Pietism is the name of a movement in Germany which sought to revive spiritual life in the Lutheran Church. In that church, religion had become purely a matter of intellect, instead of heart. Cold formality and adherence to the letter, rather than the spirit, had taken possession of the Protestant Church.
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Like the Jansenists in France, who had a similar purpose with reference to the Catholic Church, and later the Methodists in England, who sought to awaken religious zeal in the Church of England, the Pietists of Germany endeavored to vitalize religious life, and to lead men away from creeds promulgated by human agency, to the pure word of God. The Pietists differed from the orthodox Lutherans not in doctrine, but in insisting on the necessity of a change of heart and a pious life, instead of mere adherence to formal doctrine.
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FRANCKE[116] (1663−1727) Francke's early education was conducted by private teachers, though his parents, who were intelligent and God−fearing people, exerted a strong influence upon him. At
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Having become acquainted with Spener and his teachings, Francke became an earnest Pietist. His success in lecturing and his zeal in religious work drew around him a large number of students.
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CHAPTER XXXV. GENERAL VIEW OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH
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CHAPTER XXXVI. MODERN EDUCATORS =Literature.=— Davidson, Rousseau; Graham, Rousseau; Morley, Life of Rousseau; Rousseau, Émile; Munroe, Educational Ideal; Vogel, Geschichte der Pädagogik; Quick, Educational Reformers; Weir, The Key to Rousseau's Émile (article in Educational Review, Vol. XVI, p. 61); Compayré, History of Pedagogy.
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ROUSSEAU (1712−1778) Jean Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland.
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He interested himself in his son far enough to teach him to read, and supplied him with the worthless novels which he himself was fond of reading. This unwise course doubtless had much to do in shaping the character of the boy. Probably it was the evil effects of this early literature that led Rousseau later in life to oppose teaching young children to read. Quick says, “Rousseau professed a hatred of books, which he said kept the student so long engaged upon the thoughts of other people as to have no time to make a store of his own.”
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Later in life he married Thérèse le Vasseur, a woman from the common ranks of life. She bore him five children, all of whom he committed to foundling hospitals without means of identification. He did this because he was not willing that his own comfort or plans should be disturbed by the presence of children. Rousseau
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In 1749 Rousseau successfully competed for a prize offered by the Academy of Dijon on the subject, “Has the restoration of the sciences contributed to purify or to corrupt manners?” Rousseau entered this contest quite accidentally. He
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Ah, if I could have written the quarter of what I saw and felt under that tree, with what clearness should I have brought out all the contradictions of our social system; with what simplicity should I have demonstrated that man is good naturally, and that by institution only is he made bad.”
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His principal literary works are his “Confessions,” in which he declares that he conceals nothing concerning himself; the “Social Contract,” an anti−monarchic work, which many believe incited the French Revolution; “Héloïse,” a novel over−strained in sentiment and immoral in its teachings, but “full of pathos and knowledge of the human heart”; and “Émile,” his greatest work, which contains his educational theories. The “Émile"[123] was an epoch−making book, which excited great interest throughout Europe. It
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Pedagogy.=—(a) Rousseau's first principle is, “Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Author of nature; everything degenerates in the hands of man.” It follows, then, that education has only to prevent the entrance of evil, and let nature continue the work begun. It is to be a negative, as well as a natural, process.
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While in general we condemn Rousseau's scheme of education, there is much in his methods that is most excellent. On this point Compayré comments as follows: “At least in the general method which he commends, Rousseau makes amends for the errors in his plan of study: 'Do not treat the child to discourses which he cannot understand. No descriptions, no eloquence, no figures of speech. Be content to present to him appropriate objects. Let us transform our sensations into ideas. But let us not jump at once from sensible to intellectual objects. Let us always proceed slowly from one sensible notion to another. In general, let us never substitute the sign for the thing, except when it is impossible for us to show the thing.'“[125]
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In morals Rousseau taught that the first duty of every one is to take care of himself; we must love ourselves first of all, and find our greatest interest in those things that best serve us. We must seek that which is useful to us and avoid what harms us, instead of loving our enemies and doing good to those that hate us, as taught by Christ. We must love those who love us, while we must avoid and hate those who hate us. As to religion, Émile does not yet know at fifteen that he has a soul, and Rousseau thinks that perhaps the eighteenth year is still too early for him to learn that fact; for, if he tries to learn it before the proper time, he runs the risk of never really knowing that he possesses an immortal soul. But as religion furnishes a check upon the passions, it should be taught to the boy when eighteen years of age. He is not to be instructed in the doctrines of any particular sect, but should be allowed to select that religious belief which most strongly appeals to his reason. Modern investigation has proven the utter fallacy of Rousseau's teachings in this respect. Indeed, it seems to be established that the most orthodox period of the child's life occurs before the fifteenth year, the time when Rousseau would begin his religious training.
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He says, “The whole education of women should be relative to men; to please them, to be useful to them, to make themselves honored and loved by them, to educate the young, to care for the older, to advise them, to console them, to make life agreeable and sweet to them,—these are the duties of women in every age.” Consequently the sole instruction woman needs is in household duties, in care of children, in ways to add to the happiness of her husband. Her own happiness or development does not enter into Rousseau's scheme. This is the weakest part of his educational theory.
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ed hist (pwalker@icmusa.org)
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CHAPTER XXXVII. MODERN EDUCATORS ( Continued) BASEDOW[128] (1723−1790) The name of Basedow is connected with what is known as the Philanthropinic experiment.
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Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was born in Zurich, Switzerland, January 12, 1746. His father was a physician of great intelligence, and his death before the boy reached his sixth year deprived the latter of a wise counselor. The character of the mother is shown by the dying appeal of Pestalozzi's father to his servant Bäbeli: “For God's sake and in the name of mercy do not forsake my wife. When I am dead she will be helpless, and my children will fall into the hands of strangers.”
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- Your Highlight Location 3085-3105 | Added on Thursday, March 14, 2013 7:25:08 AM

Let us briefly sum up the work he accomplished:— 1. He showed how the theories of Comenius and Rousseau could be applied. By this a decided impulse was given to educational reform, and the way was prepared for the wonderful educational revival of the present century. 2. His greatest pedagogical principle is that education consists in the harmonious development of all the human powers. 3. Development should follow the order of nature. While he doubtless borrowed this thought from Rousseau, unlike Rousseau he held that the order of nature requires the child to be taught with other children. 4. All knowledge is obtained through the senses by the self−activity of the child. 5. Instruction should be based on observation, especially with young children. Hence objects must be freely used. There are three classes of object lessons,—those applying to form, to number, and to speech. Mr. Quick says, “By his object lessons Pestalozzi aimed at,—(1) enlarging gradually the sphere of the child's intuition, that is, increasing the number of objects falling under his immediate perception; (2) impressing upon him those perceptions of which he had become conscious, with certainty, clearness, and precision; (3) imparting to him a comprehensive knowledge of language for the expression of whatever had become or was becoming an object of his consciousness, in consequence either of the spontaneous impulse of his own nature, or of the assistance of tuition.” 6. The mother is the natural educator of the child in its early years. “Maternal love is the first agent in education; ... through it the child is led to love and trust his Creator and his Redeemer.” It follows, therefore, that mothers should be educated. 7. He illustrated his principles in his methods of instruction. He employed the phonic method in spelling;[147] made use of objects in teaching number; graded the work according to the capacity of the children; taught drawing, language, composition, etc., by use, thus illustrating one of the aphorisms of Comenius,—“We learn to do by doing.” 8. But the greatest lesson that Pestalozzi taught is embodied in the word love. He loved little children, he loved the distressed and lowly, he loved all his fellow−men. By the spirit which actuated him, by the methods of instruction employed, by a life of disappointment and apparent failure, by the appreciation of his service after he had gone to his rest, by the accelerated growth of his teachings throughout the world, he more closely resembles the Great Teacher than any other man that has ever lived. Dr. Harris says, “He is the first teacher to announce convincingly the doctrine that all people should be educated,—that, in fact, education is the one good gift to give to all, whether rich or poor.”[148] Hence there is no character in educational history more worthy of study and more inspiring to the teacher than Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi.
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- Your Highlight Location 3186-3190 | Added on Friday, March 15, 2013 6:12:24 AM

HERBART (1776−1841) =Literature.=—De Garmo, Herbart and the Herbartians; Felkin, Introduction to Herbart; Van Liew, Life of Herbart and Development of his Pedagogical Doctrines; Yearbooks of the Herbart Society; Lange, Apperception; Rein, Outlines of Pedagogics; also, Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik; Willmann, Herbart's pädagogische Schriften. It is probable that no system of pedagogy is attracting so much attention and awakening so much interest at the present time as that of Herbart.
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- Your Highlight Location 3249-3251 | Added on Friday, March 15, 2013 7:21:45 AM

HORACE MANN (1796−1859) =Literature.=—Mrs. Mary T. Mann, Life of Horace Mann; Hinsdale, Horace Mann; Winship, Horace Mann, the Educator; Lang, Horace Mann; F. W. Parker, Article in Educational Review, Vol. XII, p.
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- Your Highlight Location 3287-3289 | Added on Friday, March 15, 2013 7:30:40 AM

In his first Annual Report Mr. Mann asserts that, “The object of the common school system is to give to every child a free, straight, solid pathway, by which he can walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to a knowledge of the primary duties of man.”
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- Your Highlight Location 3304-3306 | Added on Friday, March 15, 2013 7:30:57 AM

Literature.=— Parsons, Prussian Schools through American Eyes; Klemm, European Schools; Prince, Methods in the German Schools; Seeley, The German Common School System; Russell, German Higher Schools; Bolton, Secondary Education in Germany.
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